Improve Your English Vocabulary: Diet, Health, and Nutrition

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Hi. Welcome to I’m Adam. In today’s video, we’re going to talk about:
nutrition. So, we’re going to get a little introduction
into how to maintain a proper diet, what you’re eating, what you should eat, what you shouldn’t
eat, how much you should eat, etc. And we’re going to especially look at the
different types of nutrients that you should put into your body if you want to grow, if
you want to maintain, if you want to lose weight, etc. So, we’re going to start with the basic process. Okay? Eating, drinking, all these things. We’re going to look at these two verbs: “ingest”
and “digest”. Okay? So, when we’re talking about nutrition, we’re
talking about what you’re taking into your body. So, when you ingest something, when you ingest
nutrients, you are swallowing them or absorbing them. So, “swallow” basically means chew and swallow. Right? So, “chew” is break down the food in your
mouth, and then you swallow it; you take it in and push it down into your stomach. You can also absorb nutrients. For example, we absorb vitamin D from the
sun through our skin. Okay? So, you can absorb or swallow – means you’re
ingesting your nutrients. In your stomach, your stomach produces juices—they’re
mostly acids—that break down the food and separate it into its different components
that can then be absorbed in the intestines. So, the intestines are the long tubes that
go back and forth from your stomach until the waste comes out, and inside all the good
nutrients get absorbed into the blood, and pushed around to all the parts of the body
that need them. So, let’s look specifically at the nutrients
that you’re going to need. Now, first thing you need to know about nutrients are… Is that they are not synthesized naturally
by the body. So, the body produces a lot of the things
it needs, but some things it just can’t synthesize; it can’t put together to create a new nutrient. So, these nutrients need to be ingested; they
need to be put into your body, basically. Right? And we have: Carbohydrates, proteins, fats,
vitamins, and minerals. And these are considered essential. You can live without carbohydrates, but you
can’t live without these nutrients. Okay? So, what are these? So, “carbohydrates”-we call them “carbs” for
short-these are the nutrients that provide your body energy, especially for your brain. Okay? They come from fruits and vegetables, grains… So, for example, bread, which comes from wheat
or whatever other kind of grain, has a lot of carbohydrates. Comes from sugars, and starches, like rice,
etc. So, all of these give your body a lot of energy. Now, you also get energy from the other minerals… From the other nutrients as well, but carbohydrates
are a very good source. The problem is they can also lead to weight
gain, if you don’t control the intake. Okay? We can also say: “intake of nutrients”. Basically means take in; intake. Okay? So, carbohydrates. Then we have proteins. “Proteins” are the nutrients that help create
and build tissues and muscles in your body. So, when a child is growing and getting bigger,
it’s the proteins that help create that growth. It’s good for bones, and muscles, and tissues,
etc. Proteins are made of amino acids, which are
the building blocks of protein, and there are many different types of amino acids. And these days you can take pills specifically
with the amino acids that you want for specific things. So, nowadays, you see a lot of guys or girls
– big, big muscles, and you think: “Oh, steroids.” Right? Not necessarily; they could just be taking
a lot of amino acids, and exercising a lot, and growing their muscles and looking much
bigger. So, proteins are basically the building blocks. “Fats” are the nutrients that store energy. So, if you eat too many carbohydrates, the
fats will store that energy as sugar, and that’s why you get fat. That’s why it’s called… When a person is a little bit heavy, we sometimes
say: “Fat”. It’s a bit of a misleading word, but that’s
what happens – you’re storing too much energy. Right? And you have different types of fatty acids. Now, fats, as we said, they’re essential;
they’re necessary nutrients, which means fat is not bad. You should eat fatty foods, but there are
different types of fats and some of them you should absolutely avoid. So, when we’re talking about fats, we’re talking
about mono-unsaturated fats or poly-unsaturated fats. These are the healthy fats. Okay? They’re in meat, they’re in fish, they’re
in fruits and vegetables – you need these. Okay? But, again, you don’t want to overdo anything. Saturated fats… Like, I’m not getting into the medical details
of the difference between saturated and unsaturated. It’s something about their bonds and the hydrogen
molecules – don’t worry about that. If you want to know, you could do some research. For now, things like nuts and certain oils,
and fish, and avocado, etc. – these are all good fats that you should take in. Okay? What you should absolutely avoid are trans
fats. Now, trans fats are fats that are basically
a byproduct of a manufacturing process. Okay? So they’re a byproduct. Oops. So, for example, when a company makes margarine
or they make baked goods in mass quantities, like cookies, or cakes, and things like that,
or chips, or cooking oil… So, if you’re eating deep-fried French fries
– very, very unhealthy. These trans fats, they basically are the things
that clog your arteries. So, the veins, the… Or, sorry. The arteries – the tubes that come out of
your heart with the blood, they get full of this… These fats, and then the blood can’t flow,
and that’s why people have a heart attack or other diseases because the blood is not
flowing properly. So, these are the ones you have to avoid;
these are the ones that you want to get inside of you. Okay? And then there are vitamins and minerals. Basically, these add or aid the functions
of the body. They help control chemicals, they help create
enzymes, they help different organs work properly. Okay? Vitamins, we usually… When we’re talking about vitamins, we’re talking
about, like, vitamin A, B, C, B12, D5 – all different types of letters and numbers. Minerals are… Have their own names; iron, zinc, magnesium,
calcium. Okay? These are all very important. You can easily take supplements… Now, if you don’t get enough of these vitamins
and minerals through your food, you can take pills or powders and make sure that you get
enough of all of these vitamins and minerals to help your body function properly. If you’re feeling a little tired, you’re missing
certain vitamins. If you’re feeling a little heavy, you’re missing
certain minerals. If your bones are weak, you need different
minerals, etc. So, all very, very important. Now… So now we know the basic idea of nutrients. Let’s look at your diet. Okay? Okay, so now we know what we’re taking into
our bodies; what we’re ingesting, what we’re digesting, etc. Now we need to think about the whole process;
the whole thing as a big picture thing. Now, before I get into these words, you have
to understand the number one rule of gaining weight or losing weight is not exercise. Exercise is very, very important – don’t get
me wrong, but if you want to lose weight or gain weight, it’s all about the diet. It’s all about what you take into your body. Right? If you want to lose weight, you can go to
the gym every single day, five hours a day, and go on that treadmill and walk, walk, walk,
jog, jog, jog – but if you’re eating McDonald’s right after your workout, you’re not going
to lose any weight. Diet is more important than exercise if you
want to change the way your body looks. Okay? Now, let’s talk about diet. What does “diet” mean? Unfortunately, these days the word “diet”
means to try to lose weight, but that’s not what “diet” actually means. “Diet” means the things that you eat, basically. If you want to gain weight, you go on a diet;
if you want to lose weight, you go on a diet. What does it mean: “to go on a diet”? It means to control the food that’s coming
into your body. Now, more specifically, what are you trying
to control? You’re trying to control the calories. Okay? Everything you eat has a… Or drink has a number of calories. Now, an average adult should get about 2,000
calories per day. Okay? That’s a healthy average calorie count for
the day. If you’re getting more than that, you risk
gaining weight. If you’re getting less than that, you’re going
to lose weight. If you want to lose weight, that’s fine; if
you want to gain weight, that’s fine too. But “diet” is just basically the system of
eating that you have, and you can change that, depending what you want from your body. Now, “calories” are basically energy units. You call… It’s measured in joules, but nobody actually
uses the word “joules”, so I’m not going to worry about that now. Now, you should always watch your calorie
count; watch the calories you’re taking in. Basically it means be aware of. So, some people use a calorie calculator. Okay? A “calorie calculator” means every time they
eat something, they punch in the number of calories in that meal, and then at the end
of the day they see how many calories they ate or drank. Make sure that you pay attention to food labels. Every time you go to the supermarket, every
time you buy a packaged item of food, there’s going to be on the side or somewhere on the
package a label that tells you the components; what… How much… How many carbohydrates are you getting, in
grams; how many proteins; how many… Which vitamins, which minerals – all this
stuff. So, make sure you pay attention to the label;
it will also tell you how many calories you have in that food item. So, make sure you understand that and you
can control your calorie intake. Now, keep in mind some people have faster
metabolisms than other people. The “metabolism” is the rate in which you
burn energy. Okay? So, if you’re taking in all these calories,
for some people, they will burn it very fast, so the calories don’t stay in the body; they
are not stored in the fat. Right? Remember: Fat stores energy. If you have a high rate of metabolism, you’re
going to burn that energy fat; there’s nothing to store – you probably need more food. If you have a slow metabolism, you’re going
to store more, so you have to control, very carefully, what you eat. Don’t forget to exercise; it is important,
but also diet is very important. Be careful how much sodium. Now, on these labels… On these food labels, you’ll see how much
sodium is in your food. “Sodium” is basically salt. Okay? They don’t like to write “salt”, because then
people get scared when they see: “Oh my god, 40% of my daily intake is in this one package.” So, on these you’ll see “% daily intake”,
basically: How much should you take in every day? And if your package has 40%, don’t buy this
item. Don’t eat it. It’s very bad for you. Okay? Avoid it. Now, another problem with salt is that retains
water. The more salt you eat, the more water your
body holds onto; and then when you get on a scale, the numbers go up. So, just eat less salt and your numbers will
go back down a little bit. Make sure you eat a lot of fiber. Now, fiber, things like celery, or bran, certain
grains, what they… What they… What the fiber does is it helps the food pass
through your body quicker, so you go to the washroom more regularly; you don’t store things
inside longer than you need to. Make sure you drink a lot, a lot, a lot of
water. A large majority of our body is made of water. Our body always needs water inside; water
helps with the digestion, with the metabolism, with everything. Make sure you drink a lot of water; otherwise,
you might also dehydrate. If you dehydrate, it means your body doesn’t
have enough water; sometimes you’ll get a headache, sometimes you’ll get dizzy and feel
like passing out, you won’t have enough energy, you’ll feel sluggish and tired – be careful
about that. And always make sure that you give your body
the rest that it needs. If you go to the gym and you’re lifting weights,
make sure that you give your body recovery time. If you’re breaking muscles and tearing tissue
because you’re lifting weights, let the body fix the muscles, fix the tissues so you always
have enough energy and have enough strength to continue on. Now, first of all, before I… I finish this off, let me just say one thing. I am not a licensed nutritionist. Okay? I am giving you an introduction to nutrition,
I’m giving you an introduction to the language, the English language of nutrition, but if
this is very important to you, and it should be-I want everyone to be healthy, energetic,
happy-make sure that you find out about all these things. Make sure you know what your body needs, what
your body doesn’t need. Maybe make an appointment with a nutritionist,
so a person who’s studied all of this stuff and who knows exactly what’s going on, and
can recommend a set diet for you that you can follow. Now, if you want to gain weight, go for it;
if you want to lose weight, go for it, too. If you want to gain weight: Lots of carbs,
lots of proteins. If you want to lose weight: Less carbs, less
proteins; although, proteins you should always have a certain minimum anyway. So, I hope this is helpful. Keep up the hard work. I mean, I go to the gym all the time. I watch what I eat now. You know, as you get older, you need to do
these things. It’s good for you. Do it. You’ll be happy you’re doing it. If you have any questions about this, please
go to and ask me in the forum there. There’s also a quiz; you can check your understanding
of the language involved with nutrition. If you like this video, like it on YouTube
and subscribe to my channel, and come back soon for some more interesting lessons. See you then.

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